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Staff Placement Grid

If you are one of the Lucky people that has completed the PVQ and have the extended report please click on image below and download to use it to place your staff and gain insight into the match of your preference and the style your followers would need. If this is of interest to you enroll in our ICOPE Leadership Development program or the online training aimed at assisting in growing your personal insight via the Psytech Assessment.

Impostor Syndrome

Compiled by: Chelsi Nehoya


Have you ever felt like all your accomplishments are based on pure luck and nothing else? How about feeling like a total liar at the thought of being exposed as a fake? What about all the compliments given for your hard work? They refuse to sink in right? Well fear not, you are simply suffering from Imposter Syndrome.

Impostor Syndrome, which was introduced by Dr. Pauline R. Clance and Dr. Suzanne A. Imes (1978) is a pattern of behaviour in which people doubt their accomplishments and have a constant fear of being unmasked as a fraud. This is somewhat weird especially for extremely successful people.

Surprisingly, Clance (2013) experienced Impostor Syndrome when she was in graduate school. Like every other student, this feeling occurred before an important examination with the fear of failing. This led her to focus mainly on the things she did not know rather than what she did. Since this behaviour was not recognised the way it is today, her friends did not understand her struggle. As a result, she kept her worries to herself. She thought the feeling of being incompetent was related to her educational background but she had a good academic status. So what was the issue? Things became clearer when she started teaching at an arts college. Students would come to her for counselling and express the same fear even though they had good grades and recommendations. After these events, that is when Clance and Imes came up with the term Impostor Syndrome and wrote a paper about it.

In spite of evidence that proves their capabilities, those suffering from Impostor Syndrome continue to perceive themselves as fraudsters and believe that they are not worthy of all they have attained (Sakulku & Alexander, 2011). Clance and Imes (1978) believe that factors such as gender stereotypes, culture and attribution styles are causes for this behaviour.

Furthermore, Clance (1985) stated that people with Impostor Syndrome give credit to external factors such as luck or good timing for their success…..all the time! It hardly turns into a ‘’I knew I could do it’’ moment which is very disappointing. To make things worse, Impostor Syndrome happens in various settings for example relationships, where people feel like they do not meet the expectations of others (Harvey & Katz, 1985).

Early research centred mainly on the idea that Impostor Syndrome was dominant amongst high-achieving women but as of late, it is known to affect both women and men equally (Lebowitz, 2016).

Dr. Valerie Young (2011) came up with the following subgroups:
• The Perfectionist: sets extremely high goals for themselves and when they fail, they suffer from insecurities.
• The Superwoman/man: are convinced that they are the fake ones amongst their colleagues. As a result, they work hard to stay on the same level as others.
• The Natural Genius: base their abilities on ease and speed instead of their efforts. The longer it takes to become skilled at something, the more incompetent they feel.
• The Soloist: refuse to ask for assistance in order to prove their worth.
• The Expert: focus on ‘’what’’ and ‘’how much’’ they know or can do. They try to be acquainted with everything to avoid looking inexperienced.
No matter which profile you fit in, remember you are not alone. Up to 70% of people experience Impostor Syndrome at some point in their life (Gravois, 2007).

Those that are affected have a high price to be pay which can be very draining. For starters, Arlin Cuncic (2019) noted that you work harder than necessary to ensure that nobody exposes you as being a fake. Furthermore, people avoid talking about this and end up suffering alone.

Researcher Queena Hoang (2013) stated that attributing your success to your own efforts can lower the feelings of being a fraud.
Harvey and Katz (1985) provided more tips on overcoming Impostor Syndrome which includes:
• Making a list of your impostor feelings and working on them
• Breaking down tasks that are discouraging into smaller parts
• Learning to be in control of situations
• Being your own person
• Accepting compliments given for your work
• Talking to others who can provide you with the support you need
If you are a victim of this feeling, it would be best to identify what type of impostor you are in order to overcome your problem appropriately. Instead of letting this ruin your chances of exploring new potential areas, start by appreciating your capabilities as they are well deserved.

Clance, P. R. (1985). The Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming the Fear That Haunts Your Success. Atlanta, GA: Peachtree.
Clance, P. R. (2013). Impostor Phenomenon. Retrieved from
Clance, P.R., & Imes, S. A. (1978). The impostor phenomenon in high achieving women: Dynamics and therapeutic intervention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 15(3), 241-247.
Cuncic, A. (2019). The Link Between Imposter Syndrome and Social Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved from
Gravois, J. (2007). You’re Not Fooling Anyone. The Chronicle of Higher Education 54(11Nov), (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ782339). Retrieved’re-Not-Fooling-Anyone/28069
Harvey, J. C., & Katz, C. (1985). If I’m so successful, why do I feel like a fake?: The impostor phenomenon. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Hoang, Q. (2013). “The Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming Internalized Barriers and Recognizing Achievements”. The Vermont Connection. 34(6). Retrieved from
Lebowitz, S. (2016). Men are suffering from a psychological phenomenon that can undermine their success, but they’re too ashamed to talk about it. Retrieved from
Sakulku, J., & Alexander, J. (2011). The Impostor Phenomenon. International Journal of Behavioural Science 6(1), 73-92.
Young, V. (2011). The Secret Thoughts of Successful Women: Why capable People Suffer from the Impostor Syndrome and How to Thrive in Spite of it. New York: Crown Business.

The Chameleon effect

The Chameleon effect: Are you a doer or a target?

compiled by: Chelsi Nehoya

Image result for chameleon effect

Have you ever found yourself imitating the postures, facial expressions or sounds of someone else during social interactions? Believe it or not, it is quite normal to do that and there is even a term for it, the chameleon effect.

It was introduced by John Bargh and Tanya Chartrand who state that such actions are not deliberate or intentional, but rather to match with that of others in the same social circle (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). Furthermore, the chameleon effect relates to people who get along and as a result, increases the chance of likeability between people. In such a case, one notices that such people tend to behave in a similar way which makes the interaction process that much easier.

Bargh and Chartrand conducted experiments to examine the chameleon effect. Their focus was to determine whether people unconsciously copy each other even if they are strangers and if this increases their likeability (, 2019).

The Experiment

In the first experiment, the researchers asked 78 individuals to have a one-on-one discussion with them. Each researcher made different gestures where one would smile more than the other and one did more foot waggling than the other (, 2019).

To determine whether certain gestures affect the interaction between the researchers and participants, the participants took part in a second experiment. Once again, the participants had a conversation with a researcher. With one half of the participants, the researchers remained neutral and relaxed. With the other half, the researchers copied the movements of the participants such as crossing their legs. They were then asked to rate on a scale of 1 – 9 how much they liked the researcher (, 2019).

In the third experiment, 55 participants completed a perspective-taking questionnaire, which is the extent to which people are open to others’ perspectives, together with a measure of empathy. Participants sat opposite a researcher, who mimicked the behaviour of participants just like in the first experiment (, 2019).

Results of Experiment

In the first study, the results concluded that the participants copied the researcher who was more of a stranger to them, as opposed to the researcher that actually copied their behaviour (, 2019).

In the second experiment, the participants who were being imitated rated their researcher as more pleasant with better interaction. This meant that mimicking indeed increase the liking of the researcher. On the other hand, the researcher who did not mimick was rated slightly less likeable (, 2019).

In the third experiment, the researchers concluded that participants who were open to other people’s ideas mimicked more compared to those who were not. In relation to empathy, people’s empathic nature did not determine the rate of mimicry (, 2019).

To conclude the experiment, people find others likeable who naturally copy their actions (, 2019).

On the contrary, Fader (2018) states that the chameleon effect has two types of behaviour: intentional mimicking and unconscious mimicking. Fader (2018) continues by saying that people avoid forming relationships with others when they notice they are being imitated. One can even say it seems rude especially when it is done by a stranger that is why timing is important. It should appear natural instead of intentional.


Chartrand, T.L. & Bargh, J.A. (1999). The chameleon effect: the perception-behaviour link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 76(6), 893-910. (2019). Chameleon Effect. Retrieved from, S. (2018). What Is The Chameleon Effect And Is It Real? Retrieved from

From Lustful to Loving Leadership – 2

Last week you where challenged to evaluate your team. A huge thank you to all of you that sent me feedback. It was very encouraging to see the interest. If you have not received the follow up sheet that helps you bring it closer to home please find it below:

With the transfer information and the video’s that will be going out on Facebook and LinkedIn as well as on my YouTube Channel you should be able to use the insights to grow your leadership towards being a more loving and thereby enabling leader. I would love it if you could share your thoughts on the videos on your preferred platform.

From Lustful to Loving Leadership

In a world driven by results, competing and survival of the fittest some basic ancient truths are lost, and leaders would benefit from understanding these core concepts. One of these core concepts is the tension between love and lust. When I use the word lust listeners often think that I will start talking about sexually immoral things leaders have been accused of etc. This is exactly the problem. The definitions of lust and love have been sexualized. In my understanding, love is the focus on someone else for their benefit. While lust is focusing on yourself for your own benefit. Within leadership this exact principle plays a role in how leaders interact with each other and their team. I aim to show the benefits of being a loving leader and the dangers of being a lustful leader and possibly challenge some of the beliefs we might have had about this. This promises to be an exciting ride!

To start the ride help me by evaluating your team via the below sheet.

As soon as you are done please mail the sheet to our consultants and we will direct you to the self evaluation sheet or mail it to you for your own insight. Hope we all can have insightful fun together.